We recognize the special difficulty in formulating sound public policy in this area, given that the two ethically distinct matters-cloning-to-produce-children and cloning-for-biomedical-research-will be mutually affected or implicated in any attempts to legislate about either.
The Ethics of Cloning-to-Produce-Children Two separate national-level reports on human cloning NBAC, ; NAS, concluded that attempts to clone a human being would be unethical at this time due to safety concerns and the likelihood of harm to those involved.
What do these differences mean for the cloned child, for family relations, and for relations across the generations? A bill permitting "therapeutic" cloning while prohibiting reproductive cloning would constitute the legalization of a wholly unethical practice in that it would legally condone and even legally require the demise of human embryos created for research purposes.
We believe that concerns about the exploitation of women and about the risk that cloning-for-biomedical-research could lead to cloning-to-produce-children can be adequately addressed by appropriate rules and regulations.
These stem cells would be genetically virtually identical to cells from the nucleus donor, and thus could potentially be of great value in biomedical research.
Indeed, our moral analysis of this matter leads us A overview of james q wilsons views on the benefits of cloning conclude that this is not, as is sometimes implied, a merely temporary objection, easily removed by the improvement of technique.
Public reaction to the prospect of cloning-for-biomedical-research has been mixed: Such an attitude toward children could also contribute to increased commercialization and industrialization of human procreation. There are numerous other examples, so transplantation therapy could potentially relieve suffering in many thousands or even millions of patients.
Kinship is tied to origins, and identity, at least in part, is tied to kinship. Normally, cells or organs from one individual even one of the same species will be rejected by another; the host recognizes the graft as foreign because of differences in surface molecules on the cells.
Moreover, the very process of proposing such regulations would clarify the moral and prudential judgments involved in deciding whether and how to proceed with this research. Rarely has such a seemingly small innovation raised such big questions.
Many other nations have banned human cloning, and the United Nations is considering an international convention on the subject. This position is supported by Council Members Rebecca S. We focus first on the broad human goods that it may serve as well as threaten, rather than on the immediate impact of the technique itself.
These regulations might touch on the secure handling of embryos, licensing and prior review of research projects, the protection of egg donors, and the provision of equal access to benefits. Speaking only for ourselves, we hold that this research, at least for the purposes presently contemplated, presents no special moral problems, and therefore should be endorsed with enthusiasm as a potential new means of gaining knowledge to serve humankind.
A moratorium on cloning-for-biomedical-research would enable us to consider this activity in the larger context of research and technology in the areas of developmental biology, embryo research, and genetics, and to pursue a more comprehensive federal regulatory system for setting and executing policy in the entire area.
Complicating the national dialogue about human cloning is the isolation in of human embryonic stem cells, which many scientists believe to hold great promise for understanding and treating many chronic diseases and conditions. Many scientists believe that these versatile cells, capable of becoming any type of cell in the body, hold great promise for understanding and treating many chronic diseases and conditions.
Cloned children would be the first human beings whose entire genetic makeup is selected in advance.
Cloning and Biomedical Science Human procreation is not the only context for evaluating the prospect of human cloning. Because we are concerned not only with the fate of the cloned embryos but also with where this research will lead our society, we think prudence requires us not to engage in this research.
To achieve this end, we believe that a comprehensive ban prohibiting both "reproductive" and "therapeutic" cloning is needed. Attempts to ground the limited measure of respect owed to a maturing embryo in certain of its developmental features do not succeed, and the invoking of a "special respect" owed to nascent human life seems to have little or no operative meaning if cloned embryos may be created in bulk and used routinely with impunity.
By this means, we hope to help policymakers and the general public appreciate more thoroughly the difficulty of the issues and the competing goods that are at stake.
To undertake fundamental inquiry into the human and moral significance of developments in biomedical and behavioral science and technology. It was in his remarks to the nation on federal funding of embryonic stem cell research, on August 9,that President Bush first declared his intention to create this Council.
As a product of biotechnology, a potential means of assisted reproduction, and a possible source of cloned embryos for research and medical use, human cloning also points us to questions about the aims, ends, and means of biomedical science and technology. In the remainder of this overview, we describe the context of human cloning and the discussions it has generated.
The United States should promote ethical scientific and medical research, and not merely the progress of research, as "good ends" do not justify any and all means to achieve those ends. All extractions of stem cells from human embryos, cloned or not, involve the destruction of these embryos.
The United States Congress has twice taken up the matter, in and again inwith the House of Representatives in July passing a strict ban on all human cloning, including the production of cloned human embryos.
Andrews has remarked that, "In the United States, there is no way a law based on the British model requiring termination of embryos would pass. Only for very serious reasons should progress toward increased knowledge and medical advances be slowed. For cloning-to-produce-children, while it may be a potential aid to human reproduction, appears also to be a substitute for it, or at least for its natural, un-programmed, sexual character.
The prospect of human cloning may have been brought before us by the march of biotechnology, but now that it is here it is incumbent upon us to look well beyond its technical and medical aspects, if we are to appreciate its significance in full.
Despite their nearly identical titles, the two bills currently being considered by Congress call for markedly different policies on this critical issue.
Our children are, to begin with, our replacements, those who will one day stand in our place. Fair and Accurate Terminology There is today much confusion about the terms used to discuss human cloning, regarding both the activity involved and the entities that result.Thinking About Crime The debate over deterrence by James Q.
Wilson THE average citizen hardly needs to be persuaded that crimes will be committed more frequently if, other things being equal.
Human cloning is the creation of a human being whose genetic make-up is nearly identical 1 to that of a currently or previously existing individual.
Recent developments in animal cloning coupled with advances in human embryonic stem cell research have heightened the need for legislation on this issue. Michael Tooley’s article “Moral Status of Cloning Humans” defends human cloning.
I am in complete agreement with it. Cloning, despite the visceral reaction it raises, is a tool in the arsenal of the transhumanist once it is understood. Here is a brief outline of the article with a bit of.
Ethics of Human Cloning by James Q. Wilson, James K.
Wilson, Leon R. Kass Today biological science is rising on a wall of worry. No other science has advanced more dramatically during the past several decades or yielded so many palpable improvements in human welfare/5(3).
The Ethics of Human Cloning Ethics of Human Cloning ALL 2/11/04 PM Page 1. Ethical Issues of Human Cloning: An Overview 9 Michael Woods 2. The News Media and the Human Cloning Debate 15 James Q.
Cloning Human Embryos for Medical Purposes Is Unethical Human Cloning and Human Dignity: An Ethical Inquiry is the first publication of the President's Council on Bioethics, which was created by President George W.
Bush on November 28,by means of Executive OrderDownload