For primary research, that involve surveys, experiments or observations, for a valuable academic article, Authors should provide information about: How do different electoral systems affect the behavior of political parties?
The better ones have powerful evidence based on reliable sources, are ordered and logical in the presentation of evidence, and reach a clear and focused conclusion that answers the question posed at the beginning of the paper.
What evidence might be marshaled to suggest an alternative explanation? It would be relatively simple to operationally define dependent variables for the study including number of fatal crashes. Write your first draft. Doing academic research is not much different, although your approaches and sources will differ.
The description of the methods used should include enough details so that the study can be replicated by other Researchers, or at least repeated in a similar situation or framework. This type of research is more subjective in nature, and requires careful interpretation of the variables. Then come sources that are studies of or otherwise refer to direct experience.
Think of when you last made a major purchase, selected a school, or saw a movie. The point is that you should attempt to identify either: Sources of Secondary Data Secondary data are available from many sources. Internal secondary data research — particularly related to a company or organization, internal sources such as sales data, financial data, operations-related data, etc.
First, if using secondary data collected using a survey instrument, it must be determined whether or not the wording of the question s of interest on the survey are a good fit for the data being used in the current analysis.
In addition, the collection of data for secondary analysis is typically much faster because the data have already been collected. Example of a thesis statement that can be answered: The analysis of secondary data allows researchers to examine data collected for other purposes to find the answers they seek to research questions.
For example, the Hawthorne Effect refers to a well-known study of the effects of lighting levels on assembly line employees at the Hawthorne works of Western Electric outside Chicago. Example of a thesis statement that is too broad: Or say you want to write about how conceptions of national identity have changed in Britain since the s.
Which data analysis methods will you choose?
You know the drill: How have conceptions of race changed in the US since the s? Primary sources in this case might include economic statistics, memoirs of politicians from the period or reportage in east European newspapers available in English or other languages.
Research Method Definition A Research Method represents the technical steps involved in conducting the research. What are the weaknesses of their accounts? For instance, if you are using a multiple choice survey, the readers need to know which questionnaire items you have examined in your primary quantitative research.
In fact, consideration of counter-arguments is often a good way to begin your paper. A common limitation of academic articles found in research papers is that the premises of the methodology are not backed by reasons on how they help achieve the aims of the article.
There are, however, gradations of primary evidence. A broad topic will make your research hard to contain. Primary data Primary data represent data originated for the specific purpose of the study, with its research questions.
One other note for Georgetown students: The Census Bureau can be accessed at www. First of all, dive into our Research Paper Starters if you are struggling to find or understand a topic.
In any case, you should try to select a topic or a feature of your topic that is of interest to you. The Bureau of Labor Statistics collects and maintains data on employment, earnings, living conditions, productivity, and other factors of interest to social scientists.
A major advantage of the analysis of secondary data is that the collection of such data is non-reactive.
Reasons for Choosing Specific Research Methods For this aspect that characterizes a good research methodology, indicate how the research approach fits with the general study, considering the literature review outline and formatand the following sections.Previous parts explored how to write an introduction for a research paper and a literature review outline and format.
The Methodology section portrays the reasoning for the application of certain techniques and methods in the context of the study. Secondary data is one type of quantitative data that has already been collected by someone else for a different purpose to yours. For example, this could mean using: Most research requires the collection of primary data (data that you collect at first hand), and this is what students concentrate on.
paper-based sources – books. Reviewing secondary source material can be of value in improving your overall research paper because secondary sources facilitate the communication of what is known about a topic. This literature also helps you understand the level of uncertainty about what is currently known and what additional information is needed from further research.
Papers normally require that a student identify a broad area of research related to the course, focus the topic through some general background reading, identify a clear research question, marshal primary and secondary resources to answer the question, and present the argument in a clear and creative manner, with proper citations.
Secondary analysis may be qualitative or quantitative in nature and may be used by itself or combined with other research data to reach conclusions. Sources of Secondary Data Secondary data are. Writing a Research Paper. This page lists some of the stages involved in writing a library-based research paper.
Although this list suggests that there is a simple, linear process to writing such a paper, the actual process of writing a research paper is often a messy and recursive one, so .Download