They are increasingly being used in print and film, and in many cases, their community prestige has improved dramatically. These settlers intermarried with the local population leading to mixed populations, and, as a result of this intermarriage, an English pidgin was created. Common traits[ edit ] Pidgins are usually less morphologically complex but more syntactically rigid than other languages, usually have fewer morphosyntactic irregularities than other languages.
For example, the name of the creole language Tok Pisin derives from the English words talk pidgin. Pidgins can become full languages in only a single generation. The substrate may survive as a second language for informal conversation.
This decreolization process typically brings about a post-creole speech continuum characterized by large-scale variation and hypercorrection in the language.
The alleged common features of all creoles would then be the consequence of those innate abilities being universal. Its speakers usually refer to it simply as "pidgin" when speaking English. Reduction or elimination of syllable codas Reduction of consonant clusters or breaking them with epenthesis Elimination of aspiration or sound changes Monophthongization is common, employment of as few basic vowels as possible, such as [a, e, i, o, u] Lack of morphophonemic variation Lack of tonessuch as those found in West African, Asian and many North American Indigenous languages Lack of grammatical tense ; use of separate words to indicate tense, usually preceding the verb Lack of conjugation or declension Use of reduplication to represent pluralssuperlativesand other parts of speech that represent the concept being increased The initial development of a pidgin usually requires: The term jargon has also been used to refer to pidgins, and is found in the names of some pidgins, such as Chinook Jargon.
Morphological details like word inflectionswhich usually take years to learn, are omitted; the syntax is kept very simple, usually based on strict word order. The term pidgin English "business English"first attested inshows the term in transition to referring to language, and by the s the term pidgin alone could refer to Pidgin English.
Another problem with the FT explanation is its potential circularity. Theories focusing on European input Theories focusing on non-European input Gradualist and developmental hypotheses Theories focusing on European input[ edit ] Monogenetic theory of pidgins and creoles[ edit ] The monogenetic theory of pidgins and creoles hypothesizes that they are all derived from a single Mediterranean Lingua Francavia a West African Pidgin Portuguese of the 17th century, relexified in the so-called "slave factories" of Western Africa that were the source of the Atlantic slave trade.
Characteristics shared by most pidgins: Pidgins, according to Mufwene, emerged in trade colonies among "users who preserved their native vernaculars for their day-to-day interactions.
Please help improve it to make it understandable to non-expertswithout removing the technical details. Overview[ edit ] A creole is believed to arise when a pidgin, developed by adults for use as a second language, becomes the native and primary language of their children — a process known as nativization.
Grammatical simplification can be explained by other processes, i. Dillard coined the term "cafeteria principle" to refer to the practice of arbitrarily attributing features of creoles to the influence of substrate African languages or assorted substandard dialects of European languages. The controversy surrounding AAVE in the American education system, as well as the past use of the word ebonics to refer to it, mirrors the historical negative connotation of the word creole.
These servants and slaves would come to use the creole as an everyday vernacular, rather than merely in situations in which contact with a speaker of the superstrate was necessary.
In this context, linguists today use jargon to denote a particularly rudimentary type of pidgin;  however, this usage is rather rare, and the term jargon most often refers to the words particular to a given profession.
Social and political status[ edit ] Because of the generally low status of the Creole peoples in the eyes of prior European colonial powers, creole languages have generally pidgin and creole essay help regarded as "degenerate" languages, or at best as rudimentary "dialects" of the politically dominant parent languages.
In fact, some have been standardized, and are used in local schools and universities around the world. These servants and slaves would come to use the creole as an everyday vernacular, rather than merely in situations in which contact with a speaker of the superstrate was necessary.
Because of this, the word "creole" was generally used by linguists in opposition to "language", rather than as a qualifier for it. Phylogenetic or typological comparisons of creole languages have led to divergent conclusions.
However, Hinnenkampin analyzing German Foreigner Talk, claims that it is too inconsistent and unpredictable to provide any model for language learning. As demonstrated by the fate of many replaced European languages such as EtruscanBretonand Venetianthe influence of the substrate on the official speech is often limited to pronunciation and a modest number of loanwords.
However, political and academic changes in recent decades have improved the status of creoles, both as living languages and as object of linguistic study. Pidgins may start out as or become trade languages, such as Tok Pisin.
Around them, they only heard pidgins spoken, without enough structure to function as natural languages ; and the children used their own innate linguistic capacities to transform the pidgin input into a full-fledged language.
For these reasons, the issue of which language is the parent of a creole—that is, whether a language should be classified as a "Portuguese creole" or "English creole", etc. They now use the term "creole" or "creole language" for any language suspected to have undergone creolizationterms that now imply no geographic restrictions nor ethnic prejudices.
Trade languages can eventually evolve into fully developed languages in their own right such as Swahilidistinct from the languages they were originally influenced by. Typologically most closely resemble isolating languages Uncomplicated clausal structure e.
Similarities are usually higher among creoles derived from related languages, such as the languages of Europethan among broader groups that include also creoles based on non- Indo-European languages like Nubi or Sango. It was observed, in particular, that definite articles are mostly prenominal in English-based creole languages and English whereas they are generally postnominal in French creoles and in the variety of French that was exported to what is now Quebec in the 17th and 18th century.
Atlantic Creole languages are based on European languages with elements from African and possibly Amerindian languages. Phylogenetic classification traditionally relies on inheritance of the lexicon, especially of "core" terms, and of the grammar structure.
Imperfect L2 learning[ edit ] The imperfect L2 second language learning hypothesis claims that pidgins are primarily the result of the imperfect L2 learning of the dominant lexifier language by the slaves. Foreigner talk and baby talk[ edit ] The Foreigner Talk FT hypothesis argues that a pidgin or creole language forms when native speakers attempt to simplify their language in order to address speakers who do not know their language at all.Get an answer for 'What is a pidgin and what is a creole?a full detail to pidgins & creols' and find homework help for other Reference questions at eNotes.
A pidgin differs from a creole, which is the first language of a speech community of native speakers that at one point arose from a pidgin. Unlike pidgins, creoles have fully developed vocabulary and patterned grammar.
Of all the differences between a Pidgin and a Creole, which of the following is the most important factor that differentiates a Creole from a Pidgin?
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
We will write a custom essay sample on Pidgins and Creoles specifically for you From such contact a marginal pidgin evolves; capable, with the help of gestures, of communicating physical needs and trading arrangements, etc. When it is remembered that most extended pidgin and creole Englishes have been in contact with some form.
"Pidgin (with a capital P) is the common way of referring to what linguists call Hawaii Creole, the Creole language that emerged on sugar plantations in Hawaii during the middle to late 19th and early 20th centuries show more content.Download