But this can be augmented through the special privilege of "indulto de commercio" where all people were forced to do business with him. Old view of a street in Cebu The Residencia and the Visita[ edit ] To check the abuse of power of royal officials, two ancient castilian institutions were brought to the Philippines: Residential areas lay around the plaza.
Manila was also the ecclesiastical capital of the Philippines. He intervened in all administrative cases pertaining to his town: It was also credited to the carabao ban ofthe formation of the silversmiths and gold beaters guild and the construction of the first papermill in the Philippines in In times of war, the encomendero was The spanish period bound to provide soldiers for the King, in particular, for the complete defense of the colony from invaders such as the DutchBritish and Chinese.
In return, the person granted the encomienda, known as an encomendero, was tasked to provide military protection to the inhabitants, justice and governance. Eximiae devotionis sinceritas granted the Catholic monarchs and The spanish period successors the same rights that the papacy had granted Portugal, in particular the right of presentation of candidates for ecclesiastical positions in the newly discovered territories.
It had conquered Melilla inand further expansionism policy in North Africa was developed during the regency The spanish period Ferdinand the Catholic in Castile, stimulated by the Cardinal Cisneros. Oran, like other principal Algerian ports, was forced to accept a presidio military outpost ; it became a major naval base, a garrison city armed with traffic-commanding cannons and harquebuses.
The power of the church derived not simply from wealth and official status. Royal grants and devises formed the core of their holdings, but many arbitrary extensions were made beyond the boundaries of the original grants.
The unpacified military zones corregimientosuch as Mariveles and Mindorowere headed by the corregidores. In the first decades of missionary work, local religions were vigorously suppressed; old practices were not tolerated.
Puerta de Santa Lucia gate is one of the gates of the walled city IntramurosManila. The Portuguese navigator and explorer Ferdinand Magellan headed the first Spanish foray to the Philippines when he made landfall on Cebu in March ; a short time later he met an untimely death on the nearby island of Mactan.
Ferdinand Magellan, painting, These actions gave Spain exclusive rights to establish colonies in all of the New World from north to south later with the exception of Brazilwhich Portuguese commander Pedro Alvares Cabral encountered inas well as the easternmost parts of Asia.
Under the cedula system taxpayers were individually responsible to Spanish authorities for payment of the tax, and were subject to summary arrest for failure to show a cedula receipt. The conquistadores, friars and native nobles were granted estates, in exchange for their services to the King, and were given the privilege to collect tribute from its inhabitants.
The governor-general was civil head of the church in the islands, but the archbishop vied with him for political supremacy.
Thus, the Philippines earned its income through the trade of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon. The polista were according to law, to be given a daily rice ration during their working days which they often did not receive.
The War of the Castilian Succession —79 provided the Catholic Monarchs with the opportunity not only to attack the main source of the Portuguese power, but also to take possession of this lucrative commerce. His yearly salary was 40, pesos. Administered over a barangay of 40 to 50 families Collected tribute in the barangay Position was originally hereditary among the local elites of the pre-colonial period Position was made elective in ; the gobernadorcillo and other cabezas chose a name and presented it to the Governor General for appointment to the position in a specific barangay.
The Spanish conquest of Oran was won with much bloodshed: This law created the municipal organization that was later adopted, revised, and further strengthened by the American and Filipino governments that succeeded Spanish.
In its earliest years, the Spanish presidio was responsible for the control of native people, the development of civilian communities, and the protection of the frontier. Portugal then began to seek further overseas expansion, first to the port of Ceuta and then by colonizing the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Azores ; it also began voyages down the west coast of Africa in the fifteenth century.
After three years of service, a cabeza was qualified for election to the office of the gobernadorcillo.
Chronicler Pulgar wrote that the fame of the treasures of Guinea "spread around the ports of Andalusia in such way that everybody tried to go there".
The Governor-General was commonly a peninsular Spaniarda Spaniard born in Spain, to ensure loyalty of the colony to the crown or tiara. Custom duties and income tax were also collected. The Zeiyanid sultans of Tlemcen quickly submitted to Spanish protectorate, and the two powers soon became allies.
Jamesprotector of Spain; the claim was made that 10, Muslims were killed and many captured. After the death of Queen Isabella inand her exclusion of Ferdinand from a further role in Castile, Ferdinand married Germaine de Foix incementing an alliance with France.
The Patronato realor power of royal patronage for ecclesiastical positions had precedents in Iberia during the reconquest. Thus, even in the area of religion, pre-Spanish Filipino culture was not entirely destroyed. Several towns and outposts in the North African coast were conquered and occupied by Castile: The exchange of Chinese silks for Mexican silver not only kept in Manila those Spanish who were seeking quick profit, but it also attracted a large Chinese community.
Royal Company of the Philippines[ edit ] See also:Spanish Period: to Inas European nations continued to compete for territory in North America, Spain began the colonization of the West Coast north of Nueva Espana.
The Spanish period Spanish colonial motives were not, however, strictly commercial. The Spanish at first viewed the Philippines as a stepping-stone to the riches of the East Indies (Spice Islands), but, even after the Portuguese and Dutch had foreclosed that possibility, the Spanish still maintained their presence in the archipelago.
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